Communications on the ship
Staying in touch while traveling to even one of the remotest places on the planet has drastically improved in recent years. On all Antarctic ships you will be able to use email whenever you want to by pre-purchasing a data card.
Many ships now have quite good WiFi, although it's likely to be localized with the strongest signal in the public areas and reception may be impaired from your cabin, depending on its location.
It can be expensive to use your data while abroad, so it may be worth buying a Argentinian or Chilean sim card while in South America for before and after your Antarctica trip. You will have to make sure your phone is unlocked before you are able to do this.
There are a variety of companies to choose from, and if you are spending some time in a large city such a Buenos Aires or Santiago you should find lots of stores which will be able to sell you a sim card. It is normally quite cheap to add on data (Personal charges $0.18 USD per day for unlimited 3G data) so it is worth using a service such as WhatsApp to save you from spending a fortune on calls.
It is also possible to rent phones at the large international airports, and your calls will be automatically charged to your credit card. This means you do not have to worry about topping up.
Check with your phone provider before travelling to see how much it will cost you to use your phone abroad in order to avoid any nasty surprises!
Plug types in Chile & Argentina
A Chilean plug socket has two cylindrical prongs. The voltage is 220V.
The Argentinian plug socket is a bit more unusual with holes for three flat prongs. However, the top prong doesn't have a function, so adaptors only include the bottom two prongs. However, some plugs support the two cylindrical prong plugs that the Chileans use. The voltage is 220V.